Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

Catedral, Num. Inv. 7] (11) - Museu Diocesà (Gerona, Spain)

Alternate Titles:

Girona Beatus, Beatus of Gerona, Beato de Liébana, códice del Monasterio de San Salvador de Tábara, Zamora, Beatus von Girona, Beato di Girona, Béatus de Gérone

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Alternate Titles

Girona Beatus
Beatus of Gerona
Beato de Liébana, códice del Monasterio de San Salvador de Tábara, Zamora
Beatus von Girona
Beato di Girona
Béatus de Gérone

Extent / Format

568 pages / 40.0 x 26.0 cm


Abbot Dominicus

Artist / School

Author: Beatus of Liébana (died after 798)
Minaturist: Emerterius (priest), Ende (nun)
Scirbe: Senior (priest)


124 illuminations decorated with gold and silver

Short description

The Girona Codex from the series of Beatus-manuscripts is the most attractively decorated and best documented work of the apocalypse manuscripts by Beatus de Liébana. It contains 124 high-quality miniatures in subdued colors and costly adornments of gold and silver.

Facsimile editions available


Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

Beatus de Liébana was a monk and theologian who belonged to the Monastery of Santo Toribio de Liébana in modern Spain. The monk is known above all else for this main work, a commentary on the biblical Apocalypse in twelve books. The Girona Codex is one of these books. It is an especially interesting and striking fragment of the twelve-part series of books. The manuscript arose in the second half of the 10th century and contains 124 miniatures richly embellished with gold and silver in all.

A Successful Collaboration

Alongside Beatus, the author of the Girona Codex, other involved person were also named. In doing so, the master of the work easily identified something that was rarely the case with Romanesque codices. Even the date of its origin was noted. The document originated ca. 975 at the behest of Abbot Dominicus. As illuminators, the nun En and the monk Emterius were named. The meticulous script of the text was completed by the scribe Senior. The gifted collective produced one of the most elegant and artful codices from the series of Beatus-Apocalypses.

The Finest Illumination

The valuable manuscript begins with a series of miniatures, which are to be found in no other Beatus-codex. A two-page depiction of heaven in six concentric circles opens the work. Hereupon follows a cycle of six full-page miniatures about the life of Christ, in which, among others, scenes of the crucifixion and descent into hell are depicted. The full-page, framed miniatures show astonishingly diverse and fantastical representations. The colors of the pictures appear subdued and unagitated. Numerous miniatures are adorned with gold and silver. The valuable original edition of the manuscript is housed today in the Girona Cathedral in Spain.

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